The French Wars of Religion would eventually result in the War of the Three Henrys with Henry of Navarre becoming King Henry IV and converting to Catholicism to maintain peace. William of Orange was put at the head of the revolt, entering the Netherlands with an army 20,000 strong, and with forces of French Huguenots in support. The Dissolution of the Monasteries, which began in 1536, provoked a violent northern Catholic rebellion in the Pilgrimage of Grace, which was eventually put down with much bloodshed. Added to this was the newer, Calvinist, teaching that the leading citizens had the duty to overthrow an "ungodly" ruler (i.e. Claiming to be the successor of David, John of Leiden was installed as king, legalized polygamy, and himself took sixteen wives, one of whom he beheaded himself in the marketplace. However both kings firmly repressed attempts to spread Lutheran ideas within France. The Roman Catholic religion was restored in much of this area. On one side was a militant Calvinist minority that wanted to continue fighting the Catholic King Philip II, and convert all Dutch citizens to Calvinism. [4] After the Duke was killed in action, he was succeeded by the Count of Mansfeld and the Dutch William of Orange and his brothers Louis and Henry. The situation on the ground in 1589 was that King Henry IV of France, as Navarre had become, held the south and west, and the Catholic League the north and east. Following the Diet of Augsburg in 1530, the Emperor demanded that all religious innovations not authorised by the Diet be abandoned by 15 April 1531. European Wars of Religion. Behind this ideological grouping of the powers, national, dynastic, and mercenary interests generally prevailed. Played 257 times. In 1529 under the lead of Huldrych Zwingli, the Protestant canton and city of Zürich had concluded with other Protestant cantons a defence alliance, the Christliches Burgrecht, which also included the cities of Konstanz and Strasbourg. After a period of peace, war took up again in 1622, to be finally ended on January 30, 1648, with the Treaty of Münster between Spain and the independent Netherlands. With the help of the Scots, Parliament won at Marston Moor (2 July 1644), gaining York and much of the north of England. invade England. Notable exceptions were Amsterdam and Middelburg, which remained loyal to the Catholic cause until capture in 1578. The moratorium kept peace in the German lands for over a decade. The tensions remained essentially unresolved, and would flare high again in the second war of Kappel two years later. In December 1560, Francis II died and Catherine de' Medici became regent for her young son Charles IX. The Lutheran duke Maurice of Saxony assisted Charles V in the first Schmalkaldic War in 1547 in order to win the Saxon electoral dignity from his Protestant cousin, John Frederick; while the Catholic king Henry II of France supported the Lutheran cause in the second Schmalkaldic War in 1552 to secure French bases in Lorraine. Although sometimes unconnected, all of these wars were strongly influenced by the religious change of the period, and the conflict and rivalry that it produced. Defeat of the Spanish Armada This defeat is seen has one of the most famous events in English history. The Battle of White Mountain in Bohemia (1620)—one of the decisive battles of the Thirty Years War. Trouver des images haute résolution de qualité dans la banque d'images Getty Images. The turning-point came in the late summer and early autumn of 1643, when the Earl of Essex's army forced the king to raise the siege of Gloucester and then brushed the Royalist army aside at the First Battle of Newbury on 20 September 1643. The south, under Spanish rule, remained a Catholic stronghold; most of its Protestants fled to the north. In 1532 the Emperor, pressed by external troubles, stepped back from confrontation, offering the "Peace of Nuremberg", which suspended all action against the Protestant states pending a General Council of the Church. The contest began largely due to a religious dispute between German Roman Catholics and Protestants, but it quickly became ensnared in the dynastic competition for power within the Holy Roman Empire . After numerous minor incidents and provocations from both sides, a Catholic priest was executed in the Thurgau in May 1528, and the Protestant pastor J. Keyser was burned at the stake in Schwyz in 1529. The first major instances of systematic Protestant destruction of images and statues in Catholic churches occurred in Rouen and La Rochelle in 1560. In 1562, seven years after the Peace of Augsburg had established a truce in Germany on the basis of territorialism, France became the centre of religious wars which endured, with brief intermissions, for 36 years. Spain retained a large military presence in the south, where it could also be used against France. Following aggressive Calvinist preaching in and around the rich merchant cities of the southern Netherlands, organized anti-catholic religious protests grew in violence and frequency. European Wars of Religion DRAFT. HELL . The Empire was a fragmented collection of semi-independent states with an elected Holy Roman Emperor as its head; after the 14th century, this position was usually held by a Habsburg. The Holy Roman Empire, encompassing present-day Germany and portions of neighbouring lands, was the single area most devastated by the Wars of Religion. The Low Countries have a particular history of religious conflict which had its roots in the Calvinist reformation movement of the 1530s. Military intervention by external powers such as Denmark and Sweden on the Protestant side increased the duration of the war and the extent of its devastation. Fought after the Protestant Reformation began in 1517, the wars disrupted the religious and political order in the Catholic countries of Europe. In History. Home › Encyclopedia › Topics › European humanism › the Europe of wars of religion › A Prelude to the Wars of Religion: The Sack of Rome (1527) The Sack of Rome in May 1527 by the troops of Emperor Charles V—king of Germany, Spain, Naples, and Sicily, and ruler of the Netherlands—was an event of rare violence that left a deep impression during the sixteenth century. Europe’s Wars of Religion were fought against entire populations, and were punctuated by events remembered as atrocities: such as the siege of Leiden in 1573-4 or, most notoriously, the St Bartholomew’s Day Massacres in France in 1572. Ireland had known continuous war since the rebellion of 1641, with most of the island controlled by the Irish Confederates. After the siege of Drogheda, the massacre of nearly 3,500 people[citation needed]—comprising around 2,700 Royalist soldiers and all the men in the town carrying arms, including civilians, prisoners, and Catholic priests—became one of the historical memories that has driven Irish-English and Catholic-Protestant strife during the last three centuries. These wars had been political in nature (and thus not religious) since both France and the Holy Roman On the other was a minority of Catholics that wanted to remain loyal to the Landholder (Dutch: landvoogd) and the Spanish-backed government below him. Wars of Religion, (1562–98) conflicts in France between Protestants and Roman Catholics. HEAVEN. [1] This relatively small incident spread North and led to the Beeldenstorm, a massive iconoclastic movement by Calvinists, who stormed churches and other religious buildings to desecrate and destroy statues and images of Catholic saints all over the Netherlands. The Netherlands and Switzerland were confirmed in independence. The Wars of Religion (1562-1598) The Reformation. But even before their arrival, the mob had already sacked the churches and the friaries. Dutch Calvinists resented the Catholic religion and their conflicts with the religion, as well as Spanish King Philip II's deep devoutness and close-mindedness toward other religions.The high nobility pleaded with him for more tolerance but some of them … Discover the best European Wars Of Religion books and audiobooks. The Reformation came to Britain and Ireland with King Henry VIII of England's breach with the Catholic Church in 1533. European Wars of Religion - Gus Weed Timeline created by cweed23@jcss.us. The immediate issue was the French Protestants' struggle for freedom of worship and the right of establishment (see Huguenots).Of equal importance, however, was the struggle for power between the crown and the great nobles and the rivalry among the great nobles themselves for the control of the king. 1. Ended the Habsburg-Valois Wars (last purely dynastic. These conflicts became known as the Dutch Revolt or the Eighty Years' War. Instructor-paced BETA . The Painter of Modern Life and Other Essays, by Charles Baudelaire. The Imperial power retreated to Austria and the Habsburg lands. Henry soon found himself in the difficult position of trying to maintain royal authority in the face of feuding warlords who refused to compromise. The Catholics were victorious and able to maintain their political dominance. In February 1563, at Orléans, Francis, Duke of Guise was assassinated, and Catherine's fears that the war might drag on led her to mediate a truce and the Edict of Amboise (1563), which again provided for a controlled religious toleration of Protestant worship. Habsburg rulers confronted an expanded Ottoman Empire while attempting unsuccessfully to restore Catholic unity across Europe. History. aharriman_59962. In 1645 Parliament passed the Self-denying Ordinance, by which all members of either House of Parliament laid down their commands, allowing the re-organization of its main forces into the New Model Army. Peace of Augsburg The Peace of Augsburg is a treaty signed by the Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V, which ended the religious conflict between Catholicism and Lutheranism. Ended the Habsburg-Valois Wars (last purely dynastic wars of the 16 th century) 2. a year ago by. The German Peasants' War of 1524/1525 was a popular revolt inspired by the teachings of the radical reformers. In an attempt to gain an advantage in numbers Charles negotiated a ceasefire with the Catholic rebels in Ireland, freeing up English troops to fight on the Royalist side in England. Edit. B This article has been rated as B-Class on the project's quality scale. States exploited religious conflicts to promote political and economic interests. Individual conflicts that can be distinguished within this topic include: Although later wars such as the Nine Years' War (1688–97) had a religious component that was important locally in some arenas, they were more fundamentally undertaken for political reasons, with coalitions forming across religious divisions. Henry I, Duke of Guise, formed the Catholic League to protect the Catholic cause in France. On his deathbed, Henri III called for Henry of Navarre, and begged him, in the name of Statecraft, to become a Catholic, citing the brutal warfare that would ensue if he refused. A 12-year truce was negotiated in 1609, and when the campaign began again it merged into the general conflict of the Thirty Years’ War, which, like the other wars of religion of this period, was fought mainly for confessional security and political gain. The major impact of the Thirty Years' War, in which mercenary armies were extensively used, was the devastation of entire regions scavenged bare by the foraging armies. The Parliamentarian conquest of Ireland ground on for another four years until 1653, when the last Irish Confederate and Royalist troops surrendered. convert to Catholicism. Watch: AP European History - French Wars of Religion. The Peace of Augsburg (1555), signed by Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, confirmed the result of the 1526 Diet of Speyer and ended the violence between the Lutherans and the Catholics in Germany. Tag Archives: European Wars of Religion Plague Doctor, 2011, by Erwin Olaf. John Casimir of the Palatinate, the Calvinist champion of Protestantism in France and the Low Countries, maintained an understanding with the neighbouring princes of Lorraine, who led the ultra-Catholic Holy League in France. In: Benedict, Ph., and others (eds). A SmartBoard Notebook file that contains a simple question sequence assignment on the French and European Wars of Religion. 1555. Further hostilities—the Seventh War (1579–1580)—ended in the stalemate of the Treaty of Fleix. People who have sinned must confess and repent. An organised influx of Calvinist preachers from Geneva and elsewhere during the 1550s, succeeded in setting up hundreds of underground Calvinist congregations in France. The Guises then proposed a settlement with a cipher as heir and demanded a meeting of the Estates-General, which was to be held in Blois. The Duke of Guise had been highly popular in France, and the league declared open war against King Henry. In the Netherlands the wise Burgundian policies of Charles V were largely abandoned by Philip II and his lieutenants. The war marked a continuation of the France-Habsburg rivalry for pre-eminence in Europe, which led later to direct war between France and Spain. The revolt of the Holy League against the prospect of a Protestant king in the person of Henry of Navarre released new forces among the Catholic lower classes, which the aristocratic leadership was unable to control. The ecclesiastical leaders of the Catholic Church (bishops) that had converted to Lutheranism were required to give up their territories. The Committee of Sixteen took complete control of the government and welcomed the Duke of Guise to Paris. At its height, in the spring and summer of 1525, it involved an estimated 300,000 peasant insurgents. Beginning as a religious conflict between Protestants and Catholics in the Holy Roman Empire, it gradually developed into a general war involving much of Europe, for reasons not necessarily related to religion. In response, William united the northern states of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Guelders and the province of Groningen in the Union of Utrecht on January 23, 1579. Learn from European Wars Of Religion experts like Frederick Marryat and Stuart Reid. The first large-scale violence was engendered by the more radical of Luther's followers, who wished to extend wholesale reform of the Church to a similar wholesale reform of society in general. They involved fights between the Huguenots (French protestants) and the Roman Catholic ruling class. 0 likes. Meanwhile, the solidly Catholic people of Paris, under the influence of the Committee of Sixteen were becoming dissatisfied with Henry III and his failure to defeat the Calvinists. Finally, his ambition to make England and France the satellites of Spain weakened his ability to suppress Protestantism in both countries. Classic . The second field action of the war, the stand-off at Turnham Green, saw Charles forced to withdraw to Oxford. The policy of the Bourbon dynasty resumed the tradition of Francis I, and under the later guidance of Cardinal Richelieu the potential authority of the monarchy was realized. In History. 68% average accuracy. Including: land, money and economics, political power, natural resources, and more included the Hussite rebellion, and missionaries and conquistadors versus Native Americans Spanish, Savoyard, and papal troops supported the Catholic cause in France against Huguenots aided by Protestant princes in England and Germany. The last straw was the installation of a Catholic reeve at Baden, and Zürich declared war on 8 June, occupied the Thurgau and the territories of the Abbey of St. Gall and marched to Kappel at the border to Zug. According to the Calvinists, these statues represented worship of idols. The European religious wars were brutal, with the combined death toll ranging from 5.5 million to 18.5 million. aharriman_59962. The staggering royal debt and Charles IX's desire to seek a peaceful solution[6] led to the Peace of Saint-Germain-en-Laye (8 August 1570), which once more allowed some concessions to the Huguenots. In a pattern soon to become familiar in the Netherlands and Scotland, underground Calvinist preaching, and the formation of covert alliances with members of the nobility quickly led to more direct action to gain political and religious control. Read European Wars Of Religion books like The Children of the New Forest and Auldearn 1645 with a free trial Learn from European Wars Of Religion experts like Frederick Marryat and Stuart Reid. S tarting in the 1520s international relations between the rising European states were dominated by conflicts that were primarily or significantly religious in character: wars in central and southern Europe, between Christians and Muslims; and, in central and northwestern Europe, confessional wars, the fruit of the Reformation. 1524 to 1648, following the onset of the Protestant Reformation in Western and Northern Europe. In its battle to maintain Catholic control of the Low Countries, Spain was severely hampered by the fact that it was also fighting a war against the Ottoman Empire in the Mediterranean. Souls purified before death. The preaching of Martin Luther and his many followers raised tensions across Europe. In Germany the territorial formula of cuius regio, eius religio applied—that is, in each petty state the population had to conform to the religion of the ruler. Peace of Augsburg A treaty between Charles V and the forces of Lutheran princes signed in 1555, which officially ended the religious struggle between the two groups and allowed princes in the Holy Roman Empire to choose which religion would reign in their principality Peace of Augsburg The peace of Augsburg was the German Princes having to decide between Lutheranism or Catholicism as their regions religion. In a pattern soon to become familiar in the Netherlands and Scotland, underground Calvinist preaching, and the formation of covert alliances with members of the nobility quickly led to more direct action to gain political and religious control. As Henry III had no son, under Salic Law, the next heir to the throne was the Calvinist Prince Henri of Navarre. This prompted intervention by Duke Maximilian of Bavaria on behalf of the Catholics. The Spanish withdrew from France under the terms of the Peace of Vervins. In 1566, a league of about 400 members of the high nobility, themselves disgruntled at Spanish rule, presented a petition to the governor Margaret of Parma, to suspend punitive actions against the Calvinists. Ferdinand, having been educated by the Jesuits, was a staunch Catholic. In general, the early part of the war went well for the Royalists. The leadership of the Catholic League had devolved to the Duke de Mayenne, who was appointed Lieutenant-General of the kingdom. The spread of French Calvinism persuaded the French ruler Catherine de Médicis to show more tolerance for the Huguenots, which angered the powerful Roman Catholic Guise family. The Catholic cantons in response had formed an alliance with Ferdinand of Austria. In History. Free 2-day shipping. The Huguenots tried to gain French government support for intervention against the Spanish forces arriving in the Netherlands. Although peace agreements were reached, the conflict restarted in 1572 following the Bartholomew's Day Massacre. On December 23, 1588, at the Château de Blois, Henry of Guise and his brother, the Cardinal de Guise, were lured into a trap and were murdered. As early as 1532, King François I, and (in 1551), King Henri II, had intervened politically and militarily in support of the Protestant German princes against the Habsburgs. There are seven questions for easy conversion to an IB grading scale. The sudden death of Mary of Guise in Edinburgh Castle on 10 June 1560 paved the way for the signing of the Treaty of Edinburgh, and the withdrawal of French and English troops from Scotland, leaving the Scottish Calvinists in control on the ground. 1524 to 1648, following the onset of the Protestant Reformation in Central, Western and Northern Europe.Although sometimes unconnected, all of these wars were strongly influenced by the religious change of the period, and the conflict and rivalry that it produced. Meanwhile English Puritans and Scottish Calvinists intensely opposed the king's main religious policy of unifying the Church of England and the Church of Scotland under a form of High Church Anglicanism. After the Peasants' War (1524/25), a second and more determined attempt to establish a theocracy was made at Münster, in Westphalia (1532–1535). In recent years religion has resurfaced amongst academics, in many ways replacing class as the key to understanding Europe's historical development. Save up to 80% by choosing the eTextbook option for ISBN: 9781317032762, 1317032764. However Spain's inability to pay its mercenary armies led to numerous mutinies and in November 1576 troops sacked Antwerp at the cost of some 8,000 lives. French Wars of Religion. The reformation continued to be imposed on an often unwilling population with the aid of stern laws that made it treason, punishable by death, to oppose the King's actions with respect to religion. The war had proved disastrous for the German "Holy Roman Empire". Some members of the League fought on, but enough Catholics were won over by the King's conversion to increasingly isolate the diehards. Engraved by Franss Hogenberg, a Dutch engraver and artist of the 16th century. In the pattern of Calvinist riots in France and the Netherlands, the mob then attacked two friaries in the town, looting their gold and silver and smashing images. In 1585, Antwerp—the largest city in the Low Countries at the time—fell into his hands, which caused over half its population to flee to the north (see also Siege of Antwerp). Peace of Augsburg The Peace of Augsburg was a treaty that ended the religious struggle between Protestants and Catholics in the Holy Roman Empire. The Holy Roman Empire, superimposed on modern political boundaries. Realising that his predecessor had been right and that there was no prospect of a Protestant king succeeding in Catholic Paris, Henry reputedly uttered the famous phrase Paris vaut bien une messe (Paris is well worth a mass). Charles was executed in 1649, and the monarchy was not restored until 1660. The Netherlands were split into an independent northern part, while the southern part remained under Spanish control. Even though religion was given as the reaso for war, there were many other reason as well. The Elector of Saxony, the Landgrave of Hesse and other North German princes not only protected Luther from retaliation from the edict of outlawry issued by the Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V, but also used state power to enforce the establishment of Lutheran worship in their lands. The fragile compromise came to an end in 1584, when the King's youngest brother and heir presumptive, François, Duke of Anjou, died. The wars were fought after the Protestant Reformation's beginning in 1517, which disrupted the religious and political order in the Catholic countries of Europe. This has resulted in an explosion of studies revisiting issues of religious change, confessional violence and holy war during the early modern period. On 1 July, Knox preached from the pulpit of St Giles', the most influential in the capital.[8]. By now Calvinist mobs had overrun much of central Scotland, destroying monasteries and catholic churches as they went. Charles soon needed to raise more money to suppress this Irish Rebellion. This time, on 24 October 1559, the Scottish nobility formally deposed Mary of Guise from the regency. Answer to: Was Spain involved in the European Wars of Religion? Cromwell's suppression of the Royalists in Ireland during 1649 still has a strong resonance for many Irish people. Nowhere was toleration accepted as a positive moral principle, and seldom was it granted except through political necessity. The citizens of each state were forced to adopt the religion of their rulers (the principle of, Lutherans could keep the territory that they had captured from the Catholic Church since the. Matthys identified Münster as the "New Jerusalem", and preparations were made, not only to hold what had been gained, but to proceed from Münster toward the conquest of the world. The total defeat of the insurgents at Frankenhausen (May 15, 1525), was followed by the execution of Müntzer and thousands of peasant followers. Treaty of Cateau-Cambrèsis, 1559 1. Mary's marriage to a leading Catholic, precipitated Mary's half-brother, the Earl of Moray, to join with other Protestant Lords in open rebellion. The Catholics were commanded by the Duke d'Anjou (later King Henry III) and assisted by troops from Spain, the Papal States and the Grand Duchy of Tuscany.[5]. European Wars of Religion Timeline created by madisonplacencia. After a period of warfare and massacre, in which the atrocities of St. Bartholomew’s Day (1572) were symptomatic of the fanaticism of the age, Huguenot resistance to the crown was replaced by Catholic opposition to the monarchy’s policy of conciliation to Protestants at home and anti-Spanish alliances abroad. This, however, was no easy task. In the latter stages of the war, Catholic France, fearful of an increase in Habsburg power, also intervened on the Protestant side. Episodes of widespread famine and disease devastated the population of the German states and, to a lesser extent, the Low Countries and Italy, while bankrupting many of the powers involved. The European Wars of Religion An Interdisciplinary Reassessment of Sources, Interpretations, and Myths 1st Edition by Wolfgang Palaver and Publisher Routledge. In 1566, on the Assumption of the Virgin day, a group of Calvinists in the Netherlands stormed Catholic churches, destroying statutes and relics in a town just outside of Antwerp. wars of the 16th century) 2. It was foiled when their plans were discovered. The European wars of religion were a series of religious wars waged in Europe in the 16th, 17th and early 18th century. Political, economic, and social background, The emergence of modern Europe, 1500–1648, Political and cultural influences on the economy, Revolution and the growth of industrial society, 1789–1914, General character of the Romantic movement, Early 19th-century social and political thought, The rise of organized labour and mass protests. Crisis, recovery, and resilience: Did the Middle Ages end? The print version of this textbook is ISBN: 9781472427113, 1472427114. On 12 May 1588, a popular uprising raised barricades on the streets of Paris, and Henry III fled the city. Lots of people are posting their COVID-19 relevant images – and one day someone should make an attempt to inventory them. On October 11, 1531, the Catholic cantons decisively defeated the forces of Zürich in the Battle of Kappel. Wolfgang Palaver & Harriet Rudolph & Dietmar Regensburger. Leeson and Russ attribute this to the Peace of Westphalia, a series of treaties in 1648, which brought a close to the 30 years’ war and ended decades of religious warfare in … In 1588 the destruction of the Spanish Armada against England was intimately connected with the progress of the struggles in France and the Netherlands. The first pitched battle of the war, fought at Edgehill on 23 October 1642, proved inconclusive, and both the Royalists and Parliamentarians claimed it as a victory. This is not to say that the combatants can be neatly categorised by religion or were divided by their religion alone, as this was often not the case. The Swedish armies alone destroyed 2,000 castles, 18,000 villages and 1,500 towns in Germany, one-third of all German towns. The peace finally ended in the Schmalkaldic War (German language: Schmalkaldischer Krieg), a brief conflict between 1546 and 1547 between the forces of Charles V and the princes of the Schmalkaldic League. The Austrian House of Habsburg was a major European power in its own right, ruling over some eight million subjects in present day Germany, Austria, Bohemia and Hungary. Oliver Cromwell's conduct in this battle proved decisive, and demonstrated his leadership potential. The peace institutionalised the Catholic, Lutheran, Calvinist religious divide in Germany, with populations either converting, or moving to areas controlled by rulers of their own faith. AP European History: Unit 2.2 HistorySage.com Wars of Religion: 1559-1648 I. Hapsburg-Valois Wars (c. 1519-1559) A. Of the 30,000 citizens, only 5,000 survived. HELL. This page uses content from the English language Wikipedia.The original content was at Category:European wars of religion.The list of authors can be seen in the page history.As with this Familypedia wiki, the content of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons License. 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